Part XII


Visible to Dark Matter Transformations


Accompanying Microwave Emissions



The origin and physical nature of the “dark” matter is ascribed to an elliptical, cosmic Equation of State; consequently, it is a rarefied matter form which ordinarily does not interact with ordinary, visible hyperbolic state or compressional matter. Here, we further explore dark matter and propose cosmic scale interactions and transformations with our visible, hyperbolic, cosmic world, that can explain gravitational ‘halos’. Microwave bond energy radiation to the cosmic microwave background CMB from these gravitational halos is examined as well as cosmic expansion.  The possibility of laboratory-scale transformations and tests emerges.





Transformations of Visible Matter into Dark Matter and Gravitational “Halos”

Transformational Energy Release in the Microwwave Band

Visible to Dark Matter Transformations,  Cosmic Microwave Background Changes and Cosmic Expansion




The nature of the dark matter as a rarefaction material form which therefore does not interact with our compressional, visible world’s material forms has been presented earlier. [1]. This advance has been possible because of the introduction of cosmic Equations of State from compressible flow theory into physical cosmology.

We now further explore the situation  by examining the mystery of the calculated,  gravitational “dark" matter  ‘haloes’ surrounding cosmic scale objects such as galaxies  [ 2].   We also explore the emissionof microwave radiation in these visible-to-dark interactions, and address the possibility of explaining  some cosmic microwave background fluctuations  as a consequence of an  increasingly large-scale cosmic, visible-to-dark matter transformtion process.


Transformations of Visible Matter into Dark Matter and Gravitational “Halos”

          Until recently, dark matter transformations or interactions with visible matter were considered non-existent. Now, however, if our  visible world is described by a hyerbolic equation of state describing compressional matter, while  the dark world is seen as being in the  elliptical state ( Fig 1) with rarefied or expanded (dark) matter,  then we can explain certain calculated gravitational “haloes “as being formed in a long- sought- for dark matter interaction.

          Gravitational “haloes” of dark matter are observed/calculated gravitational force fields in and around some cosmc entities such as galaxies. The gravitational “halos”are interpreted as being caused by the presence of dark matter ‘s gravity,  but there has been no direct physical evidence for the interpretation ( 3, 4).

          However, in our compressible flow approach,  condensed ordinary matter flowing into a region of sufficiently  low pressure ( p* ) in the core of a galactic vortex could  transform into rarefied dark matter [ Fig 1], expanding  in the process, to form the rarefied/expanded structure of the dark matter making up the gravitating “halo”.  In the expansion process which forms the rarefied dark matter, the moecular bonds of the transforming visible  matter must  rotate, releasing microwave  ( bond rotational) radiation.

It also seems reasonable that this released microwave  radiation may relate to observed flucuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (which are also currently explained in a variety of other ways (3, 4).



The criterion for wave behavior is the curvature of the equation of state [d2p/dv2 ]   on the pv diagram.


































v = 1/ρ




Curvature :




p/ dv











p* =














Fig. 1.  Hyperbolic and Elliptical  Equations of State with opposite   curvature


1.               If the curvature is positive [d2p/dv2 > 0] as in the hyperbolic, visible matter case, then the compression waves are non-linear and steepen with time to form compression shocks; rarefaction waves die out. 

2.               If the curvature is negative [d2p/dv2 ‹ 0], as in the elliptical dark matter case, then their rarefaction waves are non-linear and steepen with time to form rarefaction shocks while compression waves die out.

3.               The  indicated cosmic  pressure p* refers to a Critical Tangent  State Pressure at which visible to dark transformations may occur. 

Transformational Energy Release in the Microwwave Band

We are proposing a visible to dark matter transformation process accompanied by a release of MW radiation. Can we offer any theoretical justification for this energy release?

The energies that are involved in the proposed transformation are those connected with changes in the form of the visible matter undergoing the change. These energies would be related to structure, and therefore to molecular bond rotations. In the present case of visible to dark matter transformation, we envisage a rarefaction process bringing about an open, rarefied, dark matter  structure by a molecular bond rearrangment of visible matter, especially by molecular bond rotation. Since the new dark matter is rarefied, its structural  energy density in space  has decreased and energy must therefore be released; furthermore, the released energy is arguably in the microwave radiation energy band which corresponds to molecular rotational bond energy.

. We may then also ask whether this microwave  radiation released in ‘halo’ formation may relate to observed fluctuations  in the Cosmic Microwave Background.

Visible to Dark Matter Transformations,  Cosmic Microwave Background Changes and Cosmic Expansion

Astronomical observations of Supernovae  around 1998 were interpreted as showing the universe to be undergoing an accelerated expansion ( 4). In explanation, the concept of an all pervasive “dark energy” exerting an expansion pressure was introduced. The amount of a new hypothetical energy needed to explain the CMB effects  was enormous, constituting some 69% of the known universe, compared with only 4.9% for the visible universe and  around 28% for the dark matter

It sems possible that a cosmic scale  transformation from World A matter to World B matter i.e. visible matter transforming into dark matter with release of microwave radiation to the CMB , may be relevant to this expansion and dark energy area of physical cosmology.

 At first, soon after the Big Bang and subsequent inflation, when the overall pressure in World A was still very much higher than p* , the proposed transformation could only take place  in especially strong  astronomical  vortices where the local  vortex central pressure might drop low enough to reach the critical pressure p*. Such transformation vortices, if they exist, would probably be found in the center of large-scale astronomical entities.

In other words, with an overall pressure lowering due to cosmic expansion, at some time in cosmic history the pressure in the  core of a celestial vortex could conceivably continue to drop  locally to reach the cosmic pressure p* and then a  much more common local transformation from our World A (visible) matter to World B (dark) matter could take place. In other words, the vortex central core would become a local transformation sink in which the proposed transformation of visible matter to dark matter could occur.  [Fig 2]. This transformation would be accompanied by an energy change, namely the release of microwave radiation to the CMB.   

 Later on, in an expanding universe with continually lowering overall cosmic pressure, the  pressure gap to reach p* would continually decrease and the  proposed visible-dark transformation would become more   frequent and more widespread.  In other words, expansion accelerates the transformation which in turn accelerates the expansion. This feed back in transformation would moreover appear likely to continue so long as there is visible matter to feed the transformation process.  This is suggestive of some relationship to the observed accelerated expansion of the universe apart from a local addition to the dark halo fluctuations.


1.               There is nothing in the theory to suggest any scale limitation. Therefore, if the pressure in an intense laboratory vortex or jet flow could be lowered to the cosmic critical pressure p* , it might be possible to bring about laboratory -scale, visible to dark matter  transformations for  direct experimental verification of the transformation proposal. Three experimental alerts to design for and quantify would be: 1) Microwave radiation emission, 2) gravitational field rearrangement including, of course, any halo effect, and 3) the disappearance of some potion of the visible matter in the system as it transforms into the dark matter form.

2.       At some future distant time, with continued hyperbolic state cosmic expansion, the overall cosmic hyperbolic pressure might reach p*, and then a general transformation of World A into World B matter might conceivably take place.



1.   Part XI: Interactions and Transformations (Page  posted November, 2020).

2.   Part VIII: Equations of State for Cosmic Fields. Page posted October, 2017.

3. Navarro, Julio, F., Frenk, Carlos, S., White, Simon, D.M. (May 1996). The Structure of Cold Dark Matter Halos. The Astrophysical Journal, 462, 563-376

4. Worsley, Andrew (Oct. 2018) “Advances in Black  Hole Physics and Dark Matter Modelling of the Galactic Halo”.



Copyright  Bernard A. Power, April 2021